Izinguquko zomlando wokuzulazula kwezimoto

2021/01/09

Ngokuthandwa kwezimoto ezizimele kanye nokwanda kwezindlela zokuhamba ezifana nohambo lokuzishayela, amatilosi ezimoto asedume kakhulu kubanikazi bezimoto, futhi aze abe "yisikhali" esidingekayo kwabanye abantu sokuhamba. Abanikazi abaningi bezimoto babona ukuthi kuphephile ukuhamba nayo, ikakhulukazi uma behambela kude. Ikakhulukazi manje, njengoba i-Intanethi Yezimoto isetshenziswa kakhulu ezimpilweni zethu, ukuzula sekuyinto elula futhi enakekelayo.


Lokhu akukhona nje ukwazi ukuthi uyaphi, kepha ukukutshela ukuthi uyaphi uma ungekho, nokuthi yini okufanele ukwazi, njengokuthi uyashesha yini ijubane, kuzokutshela ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ukuthi uzokwehlisa ijubane ukuqinisekisa okwabo Phepha futhi ugweme ukwephula imithetho yomgwaqo ngasikhathi sinye.

Yiziphi izinguquko zomlando ezenzekile ekuthuthukisweni kwezinhlelo zokuhamba ngezimoto kuze kube manje? Uchungechunge oluncane olulandelayo luzokwabiwa nawe ngokususelwe kumugqa wesikhathi.


Ukusuka ebalazweni lokuskrola ngo-1921 kuye ekuzulazuleni kwezimoto ezizimele ezingabanjwanga eChina namuhla, ukuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zokwaziswa kwemikhumbi kuthathe abafundi cishe ikhulu leminyaka.


1921

Eqinisweni, ekuqaleni kokuzulazula kwezimoto, ukuzulazula kumane kususelwa ebalazweni.

1932

Abantu bathola ukuthi ukuphequlula imephu esihlakaleni akulula njengokukubeka kudeshibhodi. Ngakho-ke, uDaly ukhiphe uhlelo lokuzulazula olubizwa nge- "Iter-Auto", olungahlanganiswa kudeshibhodi yemoto ukwakha imephu ebonakalayo. Isistimu nayo ifakwe imigqa yokuxhuma imoto ukubonisa ngokuzenzakalela imephu yendawo ngenkathi ushayela.

Ngo-1960
Lona unyaka ogcwele ukubaluleka komlando. Izwe laseMelika lethule ngempumelelo uhlelo lokuqala lomhlaba lokuzulazula lomkhathi, olubizwa nge- "1B transit". Eminyakeni embalwa eyalandela, kwavela ezinye iziphuphutheki zezokuthutha zilandelana.
Uhlelo lwasetshenziswa ngo-1964. Amalungu elanga asetshenziselwa ukwamukela amasiginali omsakazo nokuhlinzeka ngokusekelwa kokuzulazula kwemikhumbi engaphansi komhlaba ye-Apple Navy. Ingasiza umkhumbi-mkhathi ukunquma ukuma kwamanje, ngokuthembela kuma-satellite ngenhla komkhumbi-mkhathi, kepha inani lama-satellite ngaleso sikhathi, isignali ivame ukunyamalala.
1966
Ngalowo nyaka, iNational General Motors Research Office yahambisa uhlelo lokuhambisa ulwazi emotweni, futhi yathuthukisa uhlelo lokulawulwa kwezinsiza zabafundi olungathembeli kuma-satellite aseChina, abizwa nge- "DAIR".
Lolu hlobo lwedivayisi inesikhungo sayo sokuphathwa kwamasevisi futhi inikezela ngemigudu emibili yezobuchwepheshe bezokuxhumana. Ingabuyekezwa ngamasignali omsakazo ancike kumalambu wezinkomba zomgwaqo ukuthola ulwazi ngenethiwekhi yezokuthutha yaseChina. Omazibuthe abashumekwe emgwaqeni "bangasebenzisa" izaziso zezwi ngokuphuma okulandelayo nemikhawulo yesivinini sokuthuthuka samanje. Abashayeli bangakhetha ukuncika ikakhulu eziteshini zokuzulazula zomzila eziseduze ukuthola imininingwane yedatha yokuhamba. Ngasikhathi sinye, bazodinga nekhadi le-punch ukuze basebenze njengomcibisholo wokuqondisa (kwesobunxele, kwesokudla noma esiqondile), ngaleyo ndlela kusize umshayeli ukuthi asebenze kahle ukuze afinyelele lapho eya khona.
1977
Ihhovisi laseMelika le-Naval Research selethule isathelayithi i-NTS-2, livula indlela yokufika kwe-NAVSTAR GPS.
1981
Imoto yokuqala eqondiswe ngemishini emhlabeni yazalwa.
Ikakhulu, isebenzisa i-helium gyroscope eyakhelwe ngaphakathi ukuthola ukunyakaza kokujikeleza kwemoto, esikhundleni sedivayisi yokuma yesethelayithi yase-U.S. Ngasikhathi sinye, kufakwa i-servo gear ekhethekile ezindlini zebhokisi lamagiya ukunikeza impendulo yokusiza ukugcina ukuma kwejubane nemoto, okwenza imoto ikwazi ukukhombisa ukuma kwayo ebalazweni elihleliwe.
1985
I-Etak yasungulwa nguHorney futhi inohlelo lokuzulazula olunombukiso we-vector ojikeleza ngokuzenzakalela lapho imoto iphenduka, ivumela indawo okuzovela kuyo ukuthi ibonakale phezulu kwemephu. Ngaleso sikhathi, i-database enkulu yenkampani idonse ukunakwa okuningi.
Cishe ngo-2000
Ngokwezinga elithile, iziphuphutheki ze-GPS zazigunyazwe kuphela ngawo-1980. Kodwa-ke, cishe ngonyaka ka-2000, uhulumeni wase-US wagcina eyeke ukukhawulela ukusetshenziswa kokukhetha kwe-GPS futhi wavula imininingwane eqondile yokubeka umhlaba kubasebenzisi abasebenzela umphakathi kanye nabezentengiselwano emhlabeni jikelele.
unyaka we-2002
Ngokuthuthuka okuqhubekayo nokwanda kwemisebenzi yohlelo lwefoni lwe-China Mobile, izinkampani ezinjengeTomTom zinganquma ukuthuthukisa nokusebenzisa izinhlelo zokusebenza zobuchwepheshe bokuzulazula. Ngakho-ke inkampani yethule i-navigator yama-PDA, futhi yahlela isisekelo nesamukeli se-GPS ukusiza abafundi bathole indawo.
unyaka we-2013
Uhlelo lokuzulazula ezimotweni seluthuthuke lwafika ezingeni elithile, futhi isibonisi se-head-up ngokwemvelo sibe yinkambu entsha elandelayo yokubona ukukhula kwemakethe yezobuchwepheshe bokuzulazula. Ngakho-ke uPioneer wethule uhlelo lwayo lweNavGate. Lolu hlelo lwesoftware lwenzelwe ukuhlinzeka amabhizinisi ngezinga elithile lomthelela wezinsizakalo zokuzulazula ngokoqobo kwezenhlalo. Isikrini esikhulu se-translucent projection sifakwe endaweni yomthunzi welanga wemoto ukuveza umkhakha wombono womshayeli. Isithombe esimboziwe ngaphakathi.
Ikusasa
Ngokuthuthuka okusheshayo kwesayensi nobuchwepheshe, ukuzulazula kwenkinobho eyodwa, ukuzulazula okulawulwa ngezwi, ukuxhumana kwezimoto nokuvumelanisa kwefoni ephathekayo kuyizinkomba zokuthuthuka kokuzulazula kwezimoto ngokuzayo.